Manufacturing Process Simulation

Using computer simulations, manufacturing processes can be simulated to understand the process better, verify the tool and die/ jigs and fixtures design, and reduce the rejections, increase the yield, enhance the quality of the process.


By conducting computer simulation, invoking its expertise, ProSIM can work on faster development of methoding and optimised process. We can work to:

  • Validate the process /gating/ methoding design
  • Optimise the gating to increase the yield
  • Increase the yield
  • Reduce the rejections
  • Increase the quality
  • Predict the defects – shrinkage porosity, air entrapment, blow holes, hot tear, cold shut, residual stress distortion,
  • Reduce the machining allowance
  • Reduce the power/ energy consumption
  • Reduce the material handling and inventory costs

All these above, directly contribute to increase PROFITS.

ProSIM has expertise to work on all casting processes as below

ProSIM has the expertise in working different metals and alloys including

  • Variety of steel grades (including stainless steels)
  • Cast Iron
  • Ductile Iron / SG Iron
  • Aluminium Alloys
  • Magnesium alloys
  • Titanium, Nickel alloys (high temperature alloys)
  • Other non-ferrous materials including copper / bronze/ brass/ lead

Some of the simulation based die/ gating design projects handled by ProSIM include:

Sheet Forming

Using simulation ProSIM can validate and optimise the die design /process design of a variety of sheet forming operations including those involving multi-stage progressive dies. Draw bead and binder surface force are optimised using Simulation. ProSIM is also involved in the simulation of tailor welded blanks, (where dissimilar materials -typically of high strength grade- and dissimilar thicknesses are welded together and formed).

Simulations are used to determine the

  • die loads,
  • die deflections and die failure,
  • thickness variations in the sheet (thinning)
  • wrinkling
  • rupture
  • tearing
  • determination of forming limit diagrams (FLD)
  • optimisation of draw beads and binder force.

Some of the sheet forming projects handled by ProSIM include:


ProSIM has capability to develop, validate, optimise sheet and rube hydroforming processes. Optimisation of pressure-time characteristics to avoid excessive pressurisation and failure of tubes, predict the loads required for forming, are achieved. ProSIM has worked on hydroforming of a variety of materials including carbon steels, high strength steels and aluminium alloys.

Forging (and bulk metal forming)

ProSIM has ability to carry out the simulation of forging to optimise the die design and get good quality forgings. ProSIM capabilities include

  • Hot forging
  • Cold forging
  • Warm forging
  • Isothermal forging
  • Closed die forging
  • Cold extrusion
  • Hot extrusion
  • Open die forging / swaging/ rotary forging

ProSIM has worked on bulk forming of a variety of alloys including

  • Steel alloys (including high strength steels, SS)
  • Aluminium Alloys
  • Titanium alloys
  • Nickel Alloys (including Inconel)
  • Other non-ferrous alloys

Using simulation based process design and optimisation ProSIM has capability to predict defects such as

  • Laps/ folds/ underfill
  • Optimise the flash
  • Optimise the process to form within the constraints of the process
  • Optimise the preheating billet / die temperature to reduce the energy consumption
  • Predict the die loads, die deflections, die stresses, and die wear and die failure

Some of the projects handled by ProSIM include:


ProSIM has capabilities for simulation of plates, sheets, rods, and tubes. Cold rolling and hot rolling processes are simulated to develop deeper understanding of the deformation pattern in each pass, temperature distribution in each pass (including adiabatic heat generated due to plastic working), cooling, annealing, quenching and so on.

Some of the rolling simulation related projects include:

Powder Compaction, Sintering, HIPing (hot iso-static pressing)

ProSIM has the ability to model the powder processing operations such as compaction and sintering. Using such models, the following benefits are derived:

  • Prediction of density gradients during compaction (arising due to friction between powder and tool/ die walls)
  • Estimation of compaction forces
  • Quantification elastic deflection (spring back) after de-compression (removal of pressure)
  • Generation of stress/ pressure distribution in the compacts
  • Optimisation of sintering time to achieve full sintering
  • Prediction of density gradients and distortion at the end of sintering.
  • Residual stress distribution in green compacts
  • Generating process control mechanisms for distortion control that will save post sintering machining
  • Optimising the temperature – time and pressure-time cycles in HIPing type of processes (to increase yield, and minimise density gradients)

Material constitutive equations that use the evolution of density as a time dependent phenomena are used. ProSIM has experience in working on a variety of powder materials including:

  • Metallic materials (iron, copper, Al, Ni and Ti alloys etc)
  • Ceramics
  • Carbides
  • Pharmaceutical powders

Heat Treatment and Annealing

ProSIM has ability to simulate the heat treatment and annealing processes. By conducting the simulation, the heat treatment cycle time can be optimised to achieve desired microstructure and mechanical properties in the batch. Kinetics of transformation are modelled using empirical/ semi-empirical/ phenomenological models, to predict the

  • phase change
  • volume fraction of phases
  • residual stress
  • distortion

A variety of processes and components have been modelled and optimised at ProSIM. These include processes in batch /continuous furnaces, vacuum furnaces, oil fired furnaces, gas fired furnaces, electric furnaces and so on.

Injection Molding